django-configurations eases Django project configuration by relying on the composability of Python classes. It extends the notion of Django’s module based settings loading with well established object oriented programming patterns.
Check out the documentation for more complete examples.
pip install django-configurations
Then subclass the included
configurations.Configuration class in your
project’s settings.py or any other module you’re using to store the
settings constants, e.g.:
# mysite/settings.py from configurations import Configuration class Dev(Configuration): DEBUG = True
DJANGO_CONFIGURATION environment variable to the name of the class
you just created, e.g. in bash:
DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable to the module
import path as usual, e.g. in bash:
Alternatively supply the
--configuration option when using Django
management commands along the lines of Django’s default
command line option, e.g.:
python manage.py runserver --settings=mysite.settings --configuration=Dev
To enable Django to use your configuration you now have to modify your manage.py or wsgi.py script to use django-configurations’s versions of the appropriate starter functions, e.g. a typical manage.py using django-configurations would look like this:
#!/usr/bin/env python import os import sys if __name__ == "__main__": os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'mysite.settings') os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_CONFIGURATION', 'Dev') from configurations.management import execute_from_command_line execute_from_command_line(sys.argv)
Notice in line 10 we don’t use the common tool
django.core.management.execute_from_command_line but instead
The same applies to your wsgi.py file, e.g.:
import os os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'mysite.settings') os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_CONFIGURATION', 'Dev') from configurations.wsgi import get_wsgi_application application = get_wsgi_application()
Here we don’t use the default
function but instead
That’s it! You can now use your project with
manage.py and your favorite
WSGI enabled server.
Don’t miss the Django project templates pre-configured with django-configurations to simplify getting started with new Django projects.
django-configurations helps you organize the configuration of your Django project by providing the glue code to bridge between Django’s module based settings system and programming patterns like mixins, facades, factories and adapters that are useful for non-trivial configuration scenarios.
It allows you to use the native abilities of Python inheritance without the
side effects of module level namespaces that often lead to the unfortunate
use of the
from foo import * anti-pattern.
Okay, how does it work?¶
Any subclass of the
configurations.Configuration class will automatically
use the values of its class and instance attributes (including properties
and methods) to set module level variables of the same module – that’s
how Django will interface to the django-configurations based settings during
startup and also the reason why it requires you to use its own startup
That means when Django starts up django-configurations will have a look at
DJANGO_CONFIGURATION environment variable to figure out which class
in the settings module (as defined by the
environment variable) should be used for the process. It then instantiates
the class defined with
DJANGO_CONFIGURATION and copies the uppercase
attributes to the module level variables.
New in version 0.2.
Alternatively you can use the
--configuration command line option that
django-configurations adds to all Django management commands. Behind the
scenes it will simply set the
DJANGO_CONFIGURATION environement variable
so this is purely optional and just there to compliment the default
--settings option that Django adds if you prefer that instead of setting
But isn’t that magic?¶
Yes, it looks like magic, but it’s also maintainable and non-intrusive. No monkey patching is needed to teach Django how to load settings via django-configurations because it uses Python import hooks (PEP 302) behind the scenes.
- Usage patterns
- Environment variables
Many thanks to those project that have previously solved these problems:
- The Pinax project for spearheading the efforts to extend the Django project metaphor with reusable project templates and a flexible configuration environment.
- django-classbasedsettings by Matthew Tretter for being the immediate inspiration for django-configurations.
Bugs and feature requests¶
As always your mileage may vary, so please don’t hesitate to send feature requests and bug reports: